Today we share 10 common skin problems and care methods for newborns for your reference.
First, neonatal eczema
Infant eczema is a skin inflammatory reaction caused by internal and external factors, which can recur repeatedly, and is related to hereditary allergic constitution and external environment. It occurs on the head and face, such as the forehead, cheeks, crown of the head, eyebrows, behind the ears, etc.
The main symptoms are erythema, rice grain papules, herpes, erosion, exudation, crusting on the skin surface, and obvious local skin inflammation, burning, and itching. Eczema is characterized by multiple rashes, symmetrical distribution, repeated severe itching, and easy to evolve into chronic. Childhood eczema is mostly caused by infant eczema.
Eczema can be prevented early:
1. Avoid allergens. Avoiding allergenic foods can be effective in preventing eczema.
2. For breastfed babies, mothers should try not to eat allergy fish, shrimp, mutton and other irritating foods.
3. Take a good bath and do basic skin care. When bathing, it is recommended to wash your baby with warm water and a non-alkaline body wash. The bath water is about 38 degrees, and the shower gel must be washed. Bath time should not be too long, up to 5-10 minutes. Pat the skin with a towel after bathing, do not rub the skin too hard. Will hurt the skin.
4. Apply lotion to keep skin moist. The moisturizing lotion provides a sealing film for the skin, intercepts the moisture lost by the skin keratinocytes, returns the moisture to the stratum corneum, fills the intercellular space, and maintains the skin barrier function.
5. Don’t wear chemical fiber clothing, soft light-colored cotton clothing is appropriate, the clothes should be loose, and don’t wear too many covers.
6. Trim your baby’s nails to avoid scratches that can form scabs on the hair and eyebrows. It can be applied with sterilized cooking oil and gently washed off after 24 hours.
2. Neonatal acne
About half of all newborns have this problem, and many pimples like teenage face develop on the face within a few days of birth.
This is due to the influence of maternal adrenal cortex hormones on the baby, resulting in excessive secretion. As sebum secretion increases, the epithelium of the hair follicle becomes keratinized and the follicular duct narrows, retaining sebum and causing acne. Mild symptoms do not require any treatment.
1. As the hormones that the baby brings from the mother is gradually metabolized, the acne of the newborn generally disappears gradually. However, if neonatal acne is more severe, some medicines can be used to treat acne according to the doctor’s recommendation.
2. If the baby is more than 6 months old and the acne of the newborn is still very serious, consult a doctor to see if the baby has endocrine problems.
Third, neonatal prickly heat
Some parents have found that the tip of their newborn baby’s nose, ala or face is covered with yellow and white dots about 1mm in size.
It could be milia. Under the action of maternal androgens, the baby’s sebaceous glands are exuberant and are prone to a miliary rash. Some babies may even see a rash around the areola and external genitalia.
It usually goes away on its own within 4-6 months after the baby is born. Do not squeeze with your hands, it may cause local infection.
Fourth, diaper rash
Diaper rash is also a common skin problem in newborns. It occurs around the anus and the part of the buttocks that covers the diaper, and is called contact dermatitis.
Diaper rash is mainly due to the irritation of the skin by ammonia in urine and protease and lipase in feces, thus causing diaper dermatitis.
Symptoms start with redness and swelling, and gradually appear papules, blisters, erosions, and exudates with clear boundaries, followed by bacterial or fungal infections, pustules or ulcers, and must be treated in time.
To prevent diaper rash, you can:
1. Use pure cotton, breathable and soft diapers. Some families will choose to use diapers, or cotton loose gauze diapers, wash diapers with baby laundry detergent, use white vinegar as a natural fabric softener, rinse thoroughly in water bleach, soak in boiling water, and dry in the sun. Do not use old tampons or synthetic fibers.
2. Change diapers or diapers frequently to avoid feces and urine irritating your baby’s buttocks.
3. Pay attention to keep the baby’s little butt clean and dry. Wash thoroughly with lukewarm water every time you change a diaper. After washing, absorb water with a soft cotton cloth (avoid rubbing back and forth). Allow your baby’s little butt to air dry before putting on a diaper.
4. After cleaning, wipe baby’s little buttocks with butt cream.
verb (abbreviation of verb) drool rash
Babies always drool when they are greedy or teething. If left unwashed, a drooling rash can easily develop around the lips.
The reason is that there is too much saliva or milk stains around the mouth, which causes the skin to be moist, which can cause irritation to the skin.
1. Pay attention to cleaning, and use cotton saliva towel to wipe saliva or milk stains in time.
2. Apply emollient oil to the corners of the mouth for isolation and protection.
Sixth, neonatal erythema
The stratum corneum of the neonatal skin has not yet formed, the dermis is thinner, and the fibrous tissue is less, but the capillary network is well developed. Often some mild stimuli, such as clothing, drugs, etc., will make the skin hyperemia, appear erythema multiforme of varying sizes and unclear edges. It is more common on the head, face, trunk, and extremities, and usually the baby has no other discomfort.
1. Erythema is a normal physiological change that does not require treatment and usually resolves spontaneously within 1 to 2 days.
2. Do not apply drugs or other things to the baby casually, because the baby’s skin is rich in blood vessels and has strong absorption and penetration. Improper handling will cause contact dermatitis.
7. Pigmented skin spots
Pigmented skin spots are commonly known as birthmarks or Mongolian spots. Many people are not aware of this, and often mistake it for an injury during childbirth, or injury by others.
This is actually a stain formed by the accumulation of pigment cells in the deep layers of the skin. It often appears as cyan, blue-gray, and blue-green spots between the baby’s buttocks and waist, or the sacrococcygeal and back. OK, irregular.
1. Usually do not need treatment, it will gradually subside with the increase of age, and gradually disappear after the age of 7.
2. If the color of the pigment spots turns brown, especially when the number and range of the pigment spots are large, you should take your baby to the hospital regularly to avoid one of the diseases of the cutaneous nerve syndrome – cerebral tuberous sclerosis.
Eight, skin hemangioma
Some babies can see red patches on their delicate skin at birth, and the red patches are more pronounced when the baby is crying. This red plaque is a hemangioma.
Most orange spots disappear on their own within a few months of birth. Although the red mole subsides very slowly, it does not have much impact on the baby’s health. These spots often appear on the baby’s face, neck, and occiput. If the hemangioma is located in a special location (such as around the nostrils) and affects the normal life of the child, it is necessary to seek medical attention in time.
1. If the baby has moles on the face, accompanied by convulsions or mental retardation, it is necessary to go to the hospital to check whether there is a brain hemangioma.
2. To avoid the surface of the plaque tumor being stimulated by friction at ordinary times, so as to avoid bacterial infection caused by abrasions, ruptures, bleeding, etc.
3. If the hemangioma suddenly grows rapidly in a short period of time, you should go to the hospital to see a doctor.
9. Physiological peeling
The stratum corneum on the outermost surface of the neonatal skin is too thin, and the epidermis and dermis are not tightly connected, which often manifests as dry and rough skin on the ankle, sole, and wrist, with peeling, which is usually the most serious on the 8th day, and then gradually decreases.
1. The water temperature should not be too high when bathing the baby.
2. Do not overuse baby soap or other cleaning products.
3. Do not rub the dandruff with a towel or hand, let it fall off naturally to prevent skin damage and infection, and even sepsis.
4. If you want to moisturise the surface of the skin, you should use a safe and gentle moisturiser.
10. Fetal fat
Some babies are born with a thin, milky layer of oil on their skin called fetal fat. Different parts are covered with fetal fat, which is formed by the secretion of sebaceous glands and the exfoliation of the epidermis.
When the fetus is in the mother’s body, fetal fat can protect the fetal skin from infiltration of amniotic fluid; after the fetus is born, fetal fat not only has a protective effect on the skin, but also reduces the heat dissipation of the baby’s body and maintains body temperature when the ambient temperature is low. constant.
1. Usually it will be absorbed by itself within 1 to 2 days after the baby is born, no need to wipe it off.
2. If it is fetal fat on both sides of the skin, neck, armpits, and groin folds, you can gently wipe it with gauze dipped in baby oil, otherwise it will easily lead to skin infection in the folds.