Baby Care

Common skin problems and daily care tips for infants and young children

The pink-carved and jade-carved baby, the smooth and delicate fleshy face, and the skin that can be broken by blowing bullets are all the envy of adults. But why do babies always suffer from eczema/prickly heat/red butt? You know, many skin problems are related to the characteristics of the baby’s skin structure.

The thickness of the stratum corneum of infants and young children is 30% thinner than that of adults, the epidermis is 20-30% thinner than that of adults, and the total thickness of the dermis is also thinner than that of adults. Babies in the neonatal period (birth to 28 days) still have some fetal fat attached to the surface of the skin. Prenatal fat itself has the effect of protecting the skin, which can help babies in the belly and in the environment of amniotic fluid without harming the skin. After birth, these fetal fat will gradually decrease naturally. After the neonatal period and entering the infancy period, it is basically not easy to see the fetal fat of the babies.

Babies have naturally thinner skin than adults, and gradually lose the protection of fetal fat after birth, which is part of the reason for the imperfect barrier function of infant skin. The skin barrier function is imperfect, and the loss of water through the epidermis (TWEL) is higher than that of adults. Therefore, babies’ skin needs more moisturizing care than adults. This is also the reason why it is recommended to apply body lotion/cream/oil all over the body after bathing, which helps to maintain the integrity of the baby’s skin barrier and is beneficial to the baby’s skin health.

After understanding the basic characteristics of baby’s skin, let’s take a look at the common skin problems of babies. Ps: The article is very long. If you want to find the corresponding skin problem, you can directly look at the bold font.

Common skin problems 1: Eczema This is probably the most common skin problem that mothers encounter and the most headache. What we usually call eczema in infancy is actually the manifestation of atopic dermatitis in infancy, which is essentially allergy. It is most common in babies aged 1 month to 2 years (because it is protected by fetal fat within 1 month, and the fetal fat has a moisturizing function. After the age of 2, some organs are relatively well developed, and the resistance of the babies will be stronger. Somewhat better), occurs mostly on the extensor sides of the head, face and limbs.

Typical skin lesions are as follows: red rashes, the skin surface is dry and rough to the touch, and there may even be some small dandruff. In severe cases, there may even be exudation (often called running water by parents), and after the exudate dries, the surface will scab. And eczema is mostly itchy. Babies who can’t speak can’t help scratching. If they scratch and become infected, the problem will be more serious. Therefore, mothers must trim their babies’ nails in time, and try not to let the babies scratch the skin.

The specific cause of eczema in babies is not yet absolutely clear. The possible incentives that have been found so far include: genetic factors (for example, babies born to eczema mothers also love eczema), dietary factors (babies who are allergic to milk powder, eggs, and wheat bran) , Eating these foods not only has a gastrointestinal reaction, but the skin may also show eczema), environmental factors (sudden changes in temperature, change of living environment), contact with some small animals, etc.

If there is a baby with eczema at home, in addition to moisturizing the baby’s skin every day, mothers should pay attention to observe whether the baby has eczema / aggravated eczema after contacting or eating any substances, such as the baby during the complementary feeding period, must be It is necessary to add one by one, so that even if there is an allergy, it can be clear which food it is. In addition, if there is a baby allergic to dust mites at home, it is best to regularly dust and clean the home environment, such as curtains, sofas, and mattresses, which are all gathering places for dust mites; if you are allergic to animal hair, it is best not to do so at home. Raise small animals. One principle is to observe more carefully and gradually investigate the allergens of the baby. However, just because babies are allergic to substances in infancy does not necessarily mean that they will also be allergic to them when they grow up. For example, when you eat eggs at 6 months, you will be allergic to rashes. It may be more than 2 years old and you will not be allergic to it. This is all possible. Parents, don’t be too impatient. Maybe the baby grows up and develops in all aspects. It’s better, and many substances that were allergic to before may gradually improve later.

Medication suggestion: No matter what degree of eczema, you must moisturize, this is the premise. Some mild eczema can be improved after using enough moisturizing cream, commonly used Cetaphil, Mustela, Eucerin, etc.

For those who have no obvious improvement after moisturizing, some hormone preparations can be used. The weaker and more commonly used 0.05% desonide cream (trade name: Liyanzhuo) is applied externally, 1-2 times a day, the most commonly used 0.1% hydrocortisone butyrate ointment for weak and medium effect (trade name: You Zhuoer), a moderately effective 0.1% mometasone furoate cream (Ailosone). Corresponding topical hormone preparations can be selected according to the severity of the baby’s eczema. It should be noted here that in addition to mild eczema, topical hormone ointment should be stopped for moderate to severe eczema. It is best not to stop as soon as the rash improves, otherwise it will easily recur. In this case, it needs to be stopped gradually. After the rash has completely recovered, it can be changed to ointment: moisturizing cream 1:1 mixed and evenly applied for 2-3 days. If there is no recurrence, continue to apply ointment: moisturizing cream 1:2 Mix and apply evenly for 2-3 days. If there is still no recurrence, you can completely transition to using a moisturizing cream.

Mothers should be reminded here not to think that hormone ointment must not be used. In fact, some weak/moderate hormones are safe for babies as long as they are not used for a long time. For those various pure natural eczema creams on the market, many of them are actually used to eliminate the size or the size of the machine (or even the size of the makeup), and they do not have the effect of drug treatment. There are even some products that illegally add hormone ingredients, which are not recommended for babies, so some mothers will think that this ointment is amazing, and it is good to use it. In fact, it is also the effect of hormones. Mother Lilac once posted an article that among the 8 baby creams submitted for inspection, 6 were found to have hormone additions.

In addition, eczema babies do not recommend medicated baths/honeysuckle blisters baths/mugwort water rinses. First of all, there is no strict clinical data to prove that this is beneficial to the baby’s eczema treatment. Secondly, there is the possibility of aggravating the baby’s skin allergies, and even induce infection. For some more serious eczema (severe exudation, infection after scratching, large area of ​​eczema, no improvement after self-care, etc.), the first choice is to go to the hospital to find a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Common Skin Problem 2: Diaper Rash (Red Butt)

Refers to skin problems seen in the area covered by diapers, manifested as small red rashes on the buttocks, groin, perianal and even genitals, severe red buttocks, there may be large areas of redness and even broken skin, ooze. The most important reason for the red butt is that the diapers are not replaced in time or the excrement is not cleaned up. Of course, the red butt of some babies is also related to the quality of the diaper.

It should be noted here that the color of the small circle of skin around the anus will be darker than that of other parts. If the reddish skin in this small circle is not swollen or enlarged, and the baby has no other discomfort, this It is normal, no additional intervention is required.

The best way to avoid red ass is to change it frequently if the size and brand of diaper you choose is right for you. In addition, pay attention to keeping your butt dry, and apply a diaper cream to block excrement and urine. The choice of diaper cream is recommended as the main ingredient is zinc oxide or Vaseline, which has the best effect on protecting the small butt. There are also many mothers who choose to use tea oil to smear their little buttocks. It can also be used to ensure that the diaper is changed in time and the baby does not have red buttocks. However, the effect of tea oil in preventing red buttocks is not as good as the buttock cream. Yes, and it is easier to drip on clothes, which is not easy to clean.

The diaper balm recommends Eucerin and Bayer’s diaper balm. Regarding washing the butt and using the nipple cream, you can refer to: Should the baby rinse with water or wipe it directly with a cotton towel after each poop?

It should be noted that if the baby’s rash has spread beyond the diaper area, or even has blisters, scales, ulcers, pus and water, be sure to take the baby to the hospital in time, because it is very likely to be a combination of bacterial/fungal infection, Don’t blindly deal with these at home.

Common Skin Problem 3: Saliva Rash

Drooling occurs when many babies are growing up, especially during the period of teething, the drooling is often a continuous flow. Some babies will have some small red rashes around the mouth (especially the chin) and neck, and in severe cases, there will be peeling and cracking. This is because saliva is acidic and contains some digestive enzymes. The baby’s skin is delicate and the skin is in contact with saliva for a long time, which is equivalent to the epidermis being immersed in saliva, which is easy to corrode the stratum corneum of the skin, which may lead to symptoms such as eczema and inflammation. Fungal infections are also prone to occur. Therefore, it is usually necessary to actively take care of the skin of the jaw. After drooling, use a soft cotton towel/handkerchief to dry the baby’s saliva in time (do not rub vigorously to avoid unnecessary irritation caused by friction), keep it clean and dry, and prevent the baby from drooling. Adverse effects of saliva on the skin.

When there is no infection, the medication and care of drooling rash are similar to those of eczema. Some milder drooling rashes can be cured even without medication after paying attention to care and moisturizing. If combined with fungal or bacterial infection, it is still recommended to go to the hospital for treatment under the advice of a doctor.

Common Skin Problem 4: Prickly Heat

Summer prickly heat especially favors babies, but there are far fewer adults with prickly heat. This is mainly because the thermoregulation function of infants is poorer than that of adults. The temperature at which adults start to sweat (32°C for women and 29°C for men), while that of newborns is as high as 42°C. . Prickly heat is easy to occur in humid and hot environments, so it is more common in summer, but if you wrap your baby too much in other seasons, it is also possible to cover up prickly heat.

Tell me how this prickly heat came about. When a large amount of sweat is secreted, the cells at the mouth of the sweat gland duct will absorb water and swell, blocking the opening of the sweat gland duct, and the sweat cannot be discharged in time, forming small transparent blisters, which is the most common white prickly heat. Generally, as long as you pay attention to keeping your baby comfortable and cool for a few days, and wear loose and breathable clothes, it will subside naturally. In addition to white prickly heat, there is also a relatively common type of red prickly heat, which is commonly found in the folds of the skin, such as near the jaw, neck, armpit, etc., red prickly heat is usually accompanied by an inflammatory reaction, and the appearance looks like a small red prickly heat Pimples are more itchy, so the baby will scratch them. When the skin is scratched and infected, it will develop into the third form of prickly heat, pus prickly heat. Prickly heat is not only an itching problem, but also painful. It can be seen that the appearance of prickly heat is a small bag with a white/yellow head. If the prickly heat develops to this stage, it will be slower to heal.

It should be noted here that many mothers like to use toilet water for babies in summer, especially those with prickly heat (because it can relieve itching). The toilet water is cool and cool, and they think that the baby with prickly heat should be very comfortable to apply. But in fact, the source of this cool feeling comes from alcohol, and most of the formulations of commercial toilet water contain alcohol. As we mentioned above, the baby’s skin is relatively thin, and the absorption of alcohol will be stronger than that of adults. If you use toilet water for the baby, part of the alcohol will be volatilized, and part of it will be absorbed by the baby’s skin. Alcohol-based products are generally not recommended for babies.

Another place where mothers are prone to stepping on thunder is prickly heat powder. Because using prickly heat powder in the armpits and even the perineum can keep the local environment dry, many mothers habitually use prickly heat powder for their babies after taking a bath. But in fact, there is no research to prove that prickly heat powder is helpful for improving prickly heat. On the contrary, because of the use of prickly heat powder, it will affect the normal heat dissipation of the skin. In this way, not only does it not help, but it will make the prickly heat heal more slowly. In addition, prickly heat powder is easy to be inhaled into the respiratory tract by mistake in the process of use. The common ingredients of prickly heat powder are corn flour, talcum powder and other substances. These substances are inhaled into the human body and are not good for health. Therefore, prickly heat powder Don’t buy something like this for a baby.

Because under normal circumstances, prickly heat will be more itchy, in the case that the baby is not scratched, in addition to keeping cool, taking a bath to clean the excess sweat on the skin surface in time, you can also use external calamine lotion to help the baby relieve itching. This medicine is very safe and can also be used on mosquito bites. If the baby’s prickly heat is more serious, not only red, but also ulceration, water, pus, or even fever, take the baby to the hospital in time. Don’t make any honeysuckle, mugwort water and other baths to treat prickly heat by yourself at home, these are not very useful.

Common Skin Problem 5: Urticaria

Commonly known as wheal in the folk, it is manifested as red bumps with obvious itching, which can be connected into pieces. The characteristics of acute urticaria are that it comes and goes quickly. Repeated attacks for more than 6 weeks are clinically referred to as chronic urticaria.

The etiology of urticaria is unknown, and there is a certain genetic predisposition. At present, it is known that there may be some food allergies (common ones are seafood, mango, alcohol), animal dander, pollen catkins, some drugs (such as penicillin), bacteria and viruses, and even sunlight, wind, cold Heat alternation, physical pressure, may cause urticaria.

At present, the treatment of urticaria can only control the symptoms, and it is difficult to eradicate the root, so it is a very important part of the prevention and treatment methods to let babies avoid suspicious allergens. When babies are scratching, they can apply a cold/ice towel to the local area, or apply calamine lotion to relieve the itching. Oral drugs are mainly antihistamines, commonly used are desloratadine and levocetirizine, but the drugs are still recommended to be used under the guidance of a doctor.

It should be noted here that severe urticaria can cause laryngeal edema, resulting in difficulty breathing or even death. If you find that your baby has not only a rash, but also a poor mental state, coughing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, or other symptoms such as fever. symptoms, be sure to seek medical attention immediately!

Common Skin Problem 6: Mosquito Bites

This is what everyone encounters – mosquito bites. It is more common in summer (there are many mosquitoes in summer), and it is more common in exposed areas (places not covered by clothes). Typical insect bite dermatitis, the skin is manifested as spindle-shaped red hard papules, with small blisters at the top and huge itching. There may also be wheals, erythema, blisters or even bullae, and some mouthpart marks of insect bites can be seen at the bite site.

Typical insect bite dermatitis
What to do if bitten by mosquitoes? The first step is cleaning. Wash the bitten area with alkaline soapy water, try to avoid scratching, otherwise it will be more troublesome to scratch the infection; the second step, cold/ice compress. Ice packs and wet towels can be used for about 10 minutes each time. Applying it when it is itchy can not only relieve the itching, but also relieve the symptoms slightly for those with red, swollen and blisters. The third step is to apply medicine/take medicine. If the symptoms are mild, you can still apply calamine lotion externally. If the redness and swelling are severe or there are small blisters and huge itching, calamine alone cannot stand it, and you need to apply some hormone ointment. Desonide or hydrocortisone butyrate ointment is recommended, which can effectively anti-inflammatory and reduce swelling, and there are generally no side effects in short-term use. If the skin has been scratched, it is necessary to use some drugs to prevent/treat infection, the most commonly used is mupirocin cream (Bai Duo Bang). Oral medicines are generally based on antihistamines.

It is recommended to take it under the guidance of a doctor. If the baby’s rash does not improve or even worsens after using the above topical medicines, or there are other uncomfortable places besides the rash, please pick up your baby and go to the hospital, which is beyond the scope of parental care.

The prevention of insect bite dermatitis is also very important. For example, children’s intimate clothing must be washed and exposed to the sun, and households should be dusted in time. Families with pets should clean their hair and deworm their pets in time. Baby’s bedding should also be washed and exposed to the sun frequently , try not to let the child play in the curtains that have not been washed for a long time, under the bed that is dragged less than once a month, and in the gray locker. Bamboo mats and rattan mats that children sleep on in summer can often be scalded with boiling water and then dried (the seams are particularly prone to dirt and dirt, and even some small bugs), and the baby strollers and safety seats are also Also pay attention to regular cleaning.

One thing to pay special attention to is that it is not recommended to use cool oil/wind essential oil/incomparable drops/green grass ointment for babies. These things contain camphor and menthol, which are not recommended for babies.

Finally, summarize some common skin care methods, and keep a small notebook.

1. Keep the clothes loose and try to penetrate the air and comfortable fabrics. Don’t put too much clothes on the baby, the main thing is comfort; 2. The temperature of the bath water is not recommended to exceed 37°C, you don’t need to use shower gel every day, and moisturizing products should be applied after the bath; 3. Do not use various remedies on your baby’s body Test, soy sauce, sesame oil, toothpaste should not be wiped casually, and various medicated baths, honeysuckle water, and mugwort water are useless; 4. It is not recommended to use antipyretic patches for fever, and there are some similar navel patches, which are not very useful. , also prone to allergies;

Rash after umbilical sticking
5. The living environment should be ventilated frequently, and the place where the baby often haunts should be cleaned. Exposure to the fabric in the sun can reduce the combat effectiveness of dust mites; Come and procrastinate, it’s fine if it’s all right, if there is a problem, it’s too late to regret it.